Spermatophores

Reviews of the occurrence of spermatophores in Phasmids (Bragg, 1991a; Carlberg, 1981) and subsequent records (Bragg, 1991b, 1992, 2001) provide strong evidence that this is the normal mechanism for sperm transfer in the order. Spermatophores have been found in 21 species, five families, and nine subfamilies (see table below). Seven of these records are based on my Bornean material. One is also a Bornean species, Phyllium bioculatum, although the spermatophore was recorded from non-Bornean material. All records of spermatophores have been made in captive specimens.

The photograph below shows a spermatophore of Aretaon asperrimus (Redtenbacher, 1908). The spermatophore can be see as a white sphere in the end of the female's abdomen.

Below is the same spermatophore after I removed it from the female's abdomen.

Spermatophores have been found in the following species:

Family Subfamily Species
Bacillidae Bacillinae Bacillus rossius (Rossi)
    Phalces longiscarphus (de Haan)
Heteropterygidae Heteropteryginae Haaniella grayii (Westwood)
    Haaniella muelleri (de Haan)
    Haaniella saussurei (Kirby)
    Aretaon asperrimus (Redtenbacher)
Diapheromeridae Lonchodinae Lonchodes jejunus (Kirby)
    Menexenus nudiusculus (Hausleithner)
    Rhamphosipyloidea gorkomi (Hausleithner)
    Phenacephorus auriculatus (Brunner)
    Phenacephorus cornucervi (Brunner)
  Necrosciinae Diesbachia hellotis (Westwood)
Phasmatidae Bacteriinae Lamponius guerini (Saussure)
  Phasmatinae Acrophylla wuelfingi (Redtenbacher)
    Anchiale maculate (Olivier)
    Medauroidea extradentatus (Brunner)
    Ramulus sp. [Carlberg's sp. 1.]
    Clitarchus hookeri (White)
  Tropidoderinae Extatosoma tiaratum (Macleay)
Phyllidae Phylliinae Phyllium bioculatum (Gray)
Timematidae Timematinae Timema californica (Scudder)

References

Bragg, P.E. (1991a) Spermatophores in Phasmida. Entomologist, 110(2): 76‑80.

Bragg, P.E. (1991b) More spermatophores in Phasmida. Phasmid Study Group Newsletter, 48:8.

Bragg, P.E. (1992) More spermatophores produced by Lonchodinae. Phasmid Studies, 1(2): 25.

Bragg, P.E. (2001) Phasmids of Borneo. Natural History Publications Borneo, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.

Carlberg, U. (1981) Spermatophores of Baculum extradentatum (Brunner von Wattenwyl) and other Phasmida. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 117: 125‑127.

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